Lie Detector Test – What happens on the day?
Twenty-four hours before the Lie Detector Test no illegal drugs or alcohol please, if you have any concerns over prescription medication please discuss this with the examiner, very few prescription drugs will actually cause an issue. We will always advise you of the full address and postcode and give you a contact number so you can plan your journey, if you are running late you can directly advise the examiner so he is aware. Do try to have something to eat on the day if possible.
On arrival we complete some paperwork, a consent form and ask you a few questions to ensure we can test you. Then we discuss what will be happening and conduct a pre-test interview discussing the issue at hand and if appropriate talk to your partner, usually asking you to wait in the waiting room. We then discuss questions together formulating three questions on a single issue based on fact, and ensure the questions are fair and that your happy with them, the questions are fully reviewed for total clarity and will be a straightforward yes or no answer only.
All tests are filmed to protect the examiner and yourself, the video isn’t released and is totally confidential. The examiner will discuss the data retention policy with you during the pre-test.
A number of polygraph tests will then be run including a practice test followed by a minimum of three real tests. The result that’s taken is an average of the three tests, same questions that have been practiced are repeated on each chart, usually in a different order. You will then be asked to wait in the waiting room whilst the examiner scores the charts which can take twenty minutes, if a second opinion is required you will be advised at this stage and the result will be given to you followed by a full printed report and email copy if requested.
And always make sure you examiner is a member of the American Polygraph Association.Read More
Inconclusive Lie Detector Test Results – What does it really mean?
So you have taken a Lie Detector Test and the results came back as Inconclusive, what does this result really mean and how often do we actually see it. Give me a pound for every time a client says ‘I bet my results are inconclusive, it’s just my luck’ I would be a rich man when working with clients!
In Lie Detector tests an inconclusive result is actually very rare, when using the latest equipment and the latest single issue techniques we have a four percent chance to see inconclusive results. When a result is inconclusive the examiner can run more charts to get a conclusive result but first he must look at other factors that could be causing Lie Detector inconclusive results in the first place. Some good examples are below.
Examiner Experience and Qualifications
You need to ensure the examiner is a member of the American Polygraph Association and in the UK the British Polygraph Association. This ensures they have been trained and have graduated a recognised course and will be using the latest techniques and equipment. An examiner who isn’t a member is very dangerous for the results, they have no regulation and won’t be following any set path. All UK Police and Government Examiners are members of the American Polygraph Association.
If the questions haven’t been formulated correctly and haven’t been fully discussed with the client first so they fully understand them this can cause an inconclusive lie detector results. I have seen reports from non-qualified examiners and it’s a serious concern as to the questions and techniques they use. An example is we would never test on ‘Do you love your partner?’ Because what really is love, another example would be ‘Do you intend to cheat on your partner?’ Im sure you will agree that intent changes by the hour.
If someone sitting a Lie Detector Test had a severe mental illness and didn’t disclose this in the pre-test it could cause an issue with a inconclusive Lie Detector results. We are not talking about anxiety or depression here by mental illness like schizophrenia. A good examiner will pick up issues like this.
If someone is guilty and attempts to cheat a Lie Detector Test and the Examiner isn’t experienced enough to pick this up, then it could affect the results. Fortunately, most things people do is usually very obvious to the trained examiner, as many as one in ten would potentially try and cheat a test to try to alter the results.
Either illegal or prescription medication can cause an inconclusive Lie Detector results. Again a qualified and experienced examiner would ask the right questions to ensure this shouldn’t happen unless the person has taken drugs to try to alter the results which we have seen happen a few times. Fortunately, its very rare and usually results in some very odd charts which has us questioning the results and possibly giving a Purposeful Non Co-Operation PNC result. I saw this recently when a client had drunk four strong coffees one after the other and had a resting heart rate of 130 beats per minute and was very jittery. They were honest in why and explained its normal for them to drink so much coffee in one go. I suspect it was because they didn’t want to be tested.
So you can see above some of the reasons we may see inconclusive results on a Lie Detector Test. To alleviate this please make sure you use a company that employs fully qualified and experienced examiners, ask the name of the examiner who will be testing you, make sure they are listed on the APA and BPA websites as current members, even Google their name. I only take a booking when I have spoken to the client first on the phone and ensured that a Lie Detector Test is right for them and explained the process to them.
Jason Hubble the author has been a Polygraph Examiner for over five years, he owns Lie Detectors UK.Read More
Lie Detector Results
When you’re taking a Lie Detector have you considered what the results may be and how they are delivered to each client?
The results can be one of three and depending on the type of test they are reported differently however the consumer is looking for either a Pass or a Fail when the Lie Detector results are given. The third result is not one we see very often, when using the latest techniques and equipment we have a four percent chance of seeing an Inconclusive result, this means the scores aren’t sufficient to either pass or fail someone. An inconclusive result does not mean the person has done what they have been accused of, however what it does mean is we are unable to clear them either.
A Polygraph Examiner may refer to the results as No Deception Indicated (NDI) which is a Pass, or Deception Indicated (DI) which is a Fail. Depending on the type of test you could also see No Significant Reaction (NSR) which is a Pass or Significant Reaction (SR) which is a Fail.
A single issue Polygraph test conducted by a qualified American Polygraph Association examiner using the latest equipment and techniques will achieve accuracy levels of between 92% and 95%. We prefer not to run multi issue tests as we lose a significant amount of accuracy, a multi issue test would comprise of three questions that are not linked to the same issue.
In most situations the Polygraph Examiner will deliver the results at the end of the test, usually after four Polygraph charts have been run. The Examiner will need sufficient time to analyse the results and draw an opinion. They will also provide a full written report with the results and should run through this with you. If a client does fail a Polygraph Test we like the chance to speak to them to try and find out why they are failing. However, during the pre-test, we ask lots of questions to ensure there is no reason a client would fail unless they are coming to lie on a Polygraph test which would show up in the results.
To get the most accurate results for your Lie Detector Test please make sure you use a fully qualified and experienced Polygraph Examiner, in the UK a list of Examiners can be found on the British Polygraph Associations Website, or click here to take you there. Always make sure you know the name of the Examiner and you have verified they are qualified before parting with any money.
Lie Detectors UK Examiners are all BPA and APA members and will be delivering the most accurate Lie Detector Results available today. Click here to make a booking.
The truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth: Polygraph tests and the law by Regan Peggs of Regan Peggs Solicitors
A question that often arises from clients is whether polygraph tests, commonly called ‘lie detector’ tests, can be used as admissible evidence in court or during other legal proceedings. So what exactly are polygraph tests, how reliable are they, and what does the law say about how they can be used?
What is a polygraph test?
A polygraph test, or lie detector test, can be used as a tool to assess the likelihood that an individual is lying, or being deliberately misleading, about a specific event or fact.
During a test, the subject is asked a series of questions whilst being monitored for changes in breathing patterns, heart rate and perspiration levels using a combination of sensors attached to the chest, arms and fingers. The resulting data is interpreted using a sophisticated algorithm that can predict the likelihood of the subject having answered the questions truthfully.
How reliable is a polygraph test?
Polygraph tests are around 80-95% reliable, depending on the type of test, the number of questions asked and various other factors.
People often ask whether it is possible to cheat on a lie detector test. While it is possible for an individual to consciously control their breathing and even their heart rate for a short time, it is extremely hard to maintain this control, and virtually impossible to prevent the tiny changes in perspiration that are produced as a result of the ‘fight or flight’ response of the nervous system.
While there are some medications that can affect measurements such as heart rate, these effects are generally accounted for during ‘pre-testing’ – the period before the test during which an examiner asks a series of neutral questions to provide a baseline response for the subject.
The exception to this is any psychoactive drug (including both cannabis and alcohol), the excessive use of which is likely to affect a subject to such an extent as to render the test results void.
However, not only are polygraph examiners are trained to spot the telltale signs of psychoactive drug use, but the levels of these substances that would be required to significantly skew the results of a polygraph test would mean that their effects would likely be obvious to even the most casual observer.
Polygraph tests as evidence in court Lie detector tests are not routinely used in courts in England and Wales. However, they can be used in some circumstances, depending on the type of court.
There are several different types of court, including criminal, civil and family courts, as well as employment and other tribunals. All of these are typically presided over by magistrates or judges (and/or juries), whose role it is to hear evidence from witnesses and submissions from advocates, to assess the credibility and arguments of all parties involved, and to issue a ruling based on their own interpretation of the law (and on their own personal judgement).
In civil courts and tribunals, polygraph tests are not used as evidence in their own right but can sometimes be used to add weight to the evidence of either party. In the criminal courts, lie detector tests are of little use as they are not allowed as evidence, supporting or otherwise.
Whatever the type of court (or tribunal), it is usually up to those presiding over the court on the day as to what types of evidence are allowed. So while polygraph tests can be a useful supplement to existing evidence, there is no guarantee that they will be accepted for use in any individual trial.
Other legal uses for polygraph tests
Aside from their use in court cases, lie detector tests can also be used as a tool in evaluating the potential for release of existing offenders from prison.
In the UK, polygraph tests are used by the National Offender Management Service to inform decisions about the early release and licensing conditions of convicted sex offenders. Individuals are tested every 3-6 months, and the results of the tests taken into consideration along with other evidence. The success or failure of a lie detector test does not guarantee a particular parole decision, and individuals have a right to appeal a licence revocation that has occurred as a result of evidence from a polygraph test.
A similar system has recently been proposed by the government for those convicted of domestic abuse, whereby offenders would be subject to polygraph testing as a condition of their licence following their release from custody.
In some other jurisdictions, more weight is given by parole boards to the results of lie detector tests. For example, in the US, polygraph tests are routinely performed on sex offenders who are due for release, the failure of which can result in additional time being added to the subject’s sentence.
Finally, the police in some countries use lie detector tests for investigative purposes, for example to rule out suspects from their inquiries, obtain a confession or to generate more lines of inquiry. While this does not currently happen in the UK, there are calls for this approach to be adopted here in future, including by Don Grubin, emeritus professor of forensic psychiatry at Newcastle University and renowned expert in polygraph testing.
“There is a real reluctance to use [polygraph testing] in investigations for reasons that I think are irrational,” Professor Grubin said, speaking to The Independent in 2015. “If it is used as part of a thought-through strategy it helps you to eliminate suspects and gain numerous other leads.”
Lie Detectors UK recommends Regan Peggs as a forward thinking Law Firm who lead the way in their industry.Read More
Lie Detector Test Machine
The Lie Detector Test Machine we use is commonly called a Polygraph, which stands for many writings, in the United Kingdom we know the Lie Detector Test Machine as a Lie Detector. The Lie Detector Machine was invented in the 1920s by John Larson and was an analog device, it continued to be improved and the computerized Lie Detector Machine were introduced in the 1992. Now all examiners will use a computerized machine to record the results more efficiently. Below is pictured a 1980s Analog device that Lie Detectors UK own but do not use. Its purely a prop in our offices.
A lot has changed in the industry due to the research that has gone into the techniques and validated methods that are used to polygraph someone today. Accuracy levels have risen greatly, now a single-issue lie detector test is 92% to 95% accurate. Most Governments now have polygraph programs, in the UK there are more Government employed examiners than there are private examiners. The UK Sex Offender Polygraph Program has put over 170 sex offenders who were on probation back behind bars it has been that successful.
There are four main brands of Lie Detector Test Machines available today and quite simply put they all do the same job, some excel in different areas. Lie Detectors UK use Stoelting CPS Pro polygraphs however Limestone, Lafayette and Axciton also make computerized Lie Detector Machines that are used by other qualified APA Examiners. Whilst it is not mandatory to use a computerized polygraph it’s something a consumer should be aware of and ask for, all qualified UK Examiners use the latest polygraph machines.
Lie Detectors UK comprises of three fully qualified Examiners who test UK wide and have their own offices at which they charge £399 for a lie detector test. They are all members of the APA and the BPA which denotes not only quality but experience. Call today and discuss your case with an examiner on 0207 859 4960. Or book online here.Read More
Wide Array of Uses for Lie Detector Test
As a private investigator, the lie detector is a superb aid to have. They have found over the year that a lot of clients need their partners tested perhaps this is because a lot of television shows utilise it. The public is more aware of it’s availability to each and everyone and not out of their reach and are aware the examiner needs to be a member of the American Polygraph Association to be qualified.
So you need to ask the question?
Is your partner or husband or wife cheating? Are there questions in your relationship which keep being unanswered? Once the trust is lost or if it is questioned in a relationship, it can take so many years to recover. In most cases, the proof of infidelity is not definitive.
The best and most reliable and accurate way to know the truth is using a lie detector test. This test has been utilised widely in relationship problems. This is one area of testing in which experience makes a huge difference. The wording of questions is essential to obtain a successful test; different people construe words differently. This format is utilised to know whether one partner has been sexually or intimately involved with someone other than her or his partner. Integrated with this format might be questions regarding dating, kissing, as well as physical contact with others.
What else can you test for?
The Lie Detector is used it for personal background checks. This specific format is suitable when a partner wants to bear out aspects of his or her partner’s background like drug or alcohol habits, sexual history, health issues, gambling particularly STDs as well as too many financial obligations.
There are ways for lie detector test that include online activities and not all cheating needs physical contact. They can test to know the level or degree of sexual activities done over the net, like a visit to porn sites, dating sites, or visit sexual webcam, chat room, interactive sexual websites or having cybersex with someone who isn’t his or her partner. The lie detector test can also be utilised each time the truth is required, for instance, sexual abuse issues, pre-employment screening, theft, drug abuse, family disputes, and many other cases.
Other types of testing take account of personal theft issues that can be utilised in cases wherein parents utilise his device as an investigative tool. This is used to help in knowing the truth when members of the family, kids or acquaintances have fallen under doubt to be involvement or knowledge in recent burglaries of personal property, embezzlement as well as vandalism.
Also, employment theft concerns a lot of employers uses the test as a tool to help in knowing whether or not workers had any knowledge or involvement in recent robberies, misappropriation of company funds or property.
So now you have all the information regarding testing, utilise it, it is not only for peace of mind in cheating partner cases. You just need to ensure you uses a reputable company who employ fully qualified examiners like Lie Detectors UK.Read More
Lie Detector Test
A polygraph machine or popularly known as lie detector is utilised to help in knowing if someone is truthfully answering a specific set of questions or he or she is lying. It is a combination of different devices utilised to measure the physical responses of a person to what is known as irrelevant, control as well as relevant questions. How the examiner interprets, this information will find out if the person being asked is telling a lie.
In a conventional lie detection test, the person is asked many questions before the actual test is done.
These are utilised make what is called as a baseline. How the personal reactions to the set of questions will help make the baseline. The blood pressure, pulse, rate of breathing as well as how much they sweat and blood flow can be all measured as physical reactions to help make the baseline. Once the actual test questions are asked the reply to these questions is compared to those questions asked to make the baseline.
There are three kinds of questions asked to the person. Some are irrelevant like asking the person what his or her name is. Others are called directed-lie or probable lie control questions and most of the time get a reply that is not truthful. This kind of question can be asking the person if he or she ever committed a crime.
The kind of question most significant to the examiner is what is known as a relevant question. A relevant question would be like asking the subject if they committed the crime. If the person responds to the probable-lie control question is more significant compared to the related issues, then the reply to the relevant question is well thought-out truthful.
It must be noted there are over 40 Government employees working with the lie detector in the UK, to date they have put 170 sex offenders back behind bars through the lie detector test program. Knowing how this useful machine works could help you understand how people reply to questions when it comes to telling the truth.
Lie detector indeed has lots of uses. It also provides lots of benefits. If the time comes that you need to know the reality or the truth, you can consider a lie detector test. Some companies offer lie detector services, make sure to find one that is both reputable and reliable as well. Lie Detectors UK are a leading Lie Detector Test company in the UK only using fully qualified American Polygraph Examiners who are also members of the British Polygraph Association. They charge £399 at their head office in Kent and £499 anywhere else in the country fixed pricing. Call today and discuss your case with an examiner.
Fake Lie Detector TestWe receive a call every week asking if we will fake the results of a lie detector test, some offer more money and other offer stories of woe, the most common being I will lose my wife and my family, the clever people even try emotional blackmail. To date I have personally had offers of bribes multiple times in person which never comes as a shock, usually just before we are going to test the person. So can you take a fake lie detector test? If you have found this article in the hope there is someone who will pass you when you know you will fail I am afraid the answer is no. I would always advise coming clean on what you have done, in the long run it is by far the best method, tell the truth and ask for forgiveness. If you cannot do this then do not take a lie detector test, stop searching for a fake lie detector test as there is not one I am afraid. All of the UK examiners are members of the American Polygraph Association the APA, this shows they are not only qualified but also experienced and regulated which is very important when choosing an examiner to work with. Many are also members of the British Polygraph Association the BPA, both Associations have websites with a list of current members, the BPA also shows that the member has completed training recently which is a requirement of membership given the changes in the industry.
Fake Lie Detector Test CertificatesYes there are even companies offering to provide you a fake lie detector test certificate for a fee. This is a complete waste of money and not advised at all, there is a lot of detail on a polygraph report, in fact ours is three pages long and has references and statements that a fake report wouldn’t be able to replicate, we even include a picture of the client being tested. its very easy to check if a report is fake or real by doping simple research on the company and the examiner who carried out the test. Additionally its well known we only test on three similar questions on a single issue for accuracy when the fake lie detector test certificates allow you multiple questions and even give you a honestly score for each question! We only release a pass or fail, otherwise you are possibly only adding to a partners insecurity rather than assisting to solve a relationship crisis. We have had people in the past ask for a sample report via email prior to booking, obviously we only release a report to someone who has taken a polygraph test, our reports also include a special feature that mean people cant change the results or fake one of our reports, and if you were thinking of doing this be warned we would prosecute.
Lie Detector Test CountermeasuresThe second type of person looking for a fake lie detector test will then search ‘how to pass a lie detector test’ there is only one way and that’s by telling the truth however its estimated in the UK that 10% of examinees will be trying countermeasures. These are things people will try to influence the decision in their favor and will find these things that we call countermeasures on the internet. Do they work? Some do but are very easily picked up by a qualified examiner using the latest polygraph equipment, as there is an obvious pattern and obvious signs. It is also worth pointing out that most examinees will make mistakes when trying countermeasures and often get the timing very wrong. The most common countermeasure employed is breathing manipulation, the easiest to spot and the one that for some people has no effect on a test. I have seen people tense up to try to alter blood pressure; I have had people take drugs, bite their tongue etc. The most extreme was taking heroin however this produced very strange flat charts and an inconclusive result which is quite usual for illegal drug usage as a countermeasure. We discuss more countermeasures here.
Lie Detectors UKLie Detectors UK are members of the APA and the BPA and use the latest polygraph equipment and definitely can’t help you take a fake lie detector test. For one it is our reputation, the second being we would lose our qualifications and the third is it is simply not worth the risk for the examiner and the company whatever the potential short-term reward. The same has to be said for every BPA examiner in the UK, we often all get the same phone calls as the person rings round after someone to pass them. My advice is always come clean or do not take a lie detector test, as you will not find a fake lie detector test in the UK. Call or email us today on email@example.com or 0207 859 4960 to discuss you case with a qualified BPA/APA examiner who will advise you of the process and answer any questions you may have. All our pricing is fixed and transparent with no hidden extras.Read More
Polygraph UK – Can You Pass The Test?
How to pass a UK Polygraph Test
Polygraph examinees will maximize their chances of producing a highly accurate and favorable test outcome if they are behaviorally cooperative during testing. Cooperation during testing contributes to the production of normal and interpretable test data. Despite receiving thorough information during the pretest interview, some polygraph examinees may benefit from additional instruction or admonition, during the in-test recording phase of the examination, about the importance of behavioral cooperation during testing. Circumstances that may require additional in-test instruction can stem from a variety of causes. Some examinees may under-appreciate the seriousness and importance of the information and instruction they receive during the polygraph pretest interview, and may exhibit unexpected intest behavior that could compromise their chances of producing a favorable test outcome.
Other examinees may choose to be uncooperative during testing – with the goal of disrupting or interfering with the effectiveness of their polygraph test results. Other conditions may also manifest in observable problems with an examinee’s intest behavior. Regardless of the cause, all counterproductive in-test behavior can result in an examiner providing additional in-test instruction, information, or admonition in attempt to help the examinee cooperate more successfully. Innocent and truthful polygraph examinees can benefit from an examiner’s in-test instruction if the information is provided in a helpful and professional manner that neither compromises the objectivity of the test nor further disrupts the examinee’s ability to cooperate and attend to the testing context.
Of course, or some examinees – especially those whose non-cooperation disruptive behavior is strategic or intentional – it is possible that no amount of additional information will improve their in-test behavior and cooperation. Some deceptive examinees, and some characterological manipulative individuals, may approach the polygraph test with a conscious plan or strategy to attempt to circumvent the effectiveness of the examination. It is also possible that some intuitively manipulative persons may prefer to approach the testing context without a fixed plan, and may instead adapt their disruptive strategies in-situ to the persona and style of the examiner.
All polygraph examinees who are intentionally disruptive or manipulative may share common goals or employ common strategies.
Disruptive goals may include:
1) remaining unobserved while engaging in a disruptive activity,
2) creating the impression that the disruptive or non-cooperative activity is an unavoidable, and therefore tolerable, aspect of the individual’s normal functioning,
3) habituating an examiner into a state of tolerance for disruptive or non-cooperative behavior that may increase as the testing process proceeds, or
4) adopting a form of victim-stance based on the premise that observed problematic behavior and non-cooperation is the result of over-stimulation by an authoritarian, confrontational or accusatory examiner.
In the absence of clairvoyance and mind-reading capabilities, it will be generally impossible for an examiner to know the exact cause of any observed disruptive in-test behavior with absolute certainty. For this reason, skillful polygraph examiners will attempt to address all counterproductive in-test behavior in a calm, rational and professional manner that will be helpful to examinees who desire to cooperate successfully. The manner of in which an examiner addresses observable problematic in-test behavior should not contribute to other secondary problems such as an examinee becoming increasingly focused on, or fearful of, the examiner instead of attending to the test stimuli. Done effectively, in-test instruction and admonition can be an addition source of useful for both structured analysis and unstructured professional intuition about the likely causes of an observed in-test behavior. Possible causes, in simplistic terms, can include systematic or strategic intent to disrupt the test, but may also involve random or involuntary factors. The challenge will be for an examiner to differentiate between examinees’ who cannot cooperate from those who will not cooperate.
What to do.
- Give in-test instructions in a manner that is helpful to the examinee and respectful of the examinee’s human dignity.
- Refrain from accusing the examinee, during the in-test phase, of intentional disruption. Instead, confrontation and accusation may be more appropriate during the posttest, after the completion of the recording and analysis of all test data.
- Give in-test instructions in a manner that conveys an interest in the most favorable test outcome for the examinee.
- Do not confront observed problem behavior in a manner that is likely to result in interpersonal reactivity or fear of the person or persona of the examiner.
- Give in-test instructions in a manner that conveys information that the examinee can use to make effective and cooperative behavioral choices during the test.
- Refrain from attempts to guess or describe precisely what behavior an examinee may have engaged in.
- Repeat any in-test instruction once if necessary.
- Do not escalate the intensity of any repeated instruction, and do not give in-test instruction more than twice. Instead, all in test instructions and admonitions should be provided with the same neutral and authoritative attitude of respect.
- Annotate all in-test instruction and admonitions.
- Continue to annotate without additional instruction if an observed problematic or non-cooperative behavior persists after two in-test instructions.
- Consider terminating and re-starting a chart if a problem can be rectified with additional discussion or instruction.
- Do not arbitrarily render a deceptive conclusion prior to the recording and analysis of all test data. If necessary, stop the exam and review the information and instructions so that an examinees will know how to cooperate successfully if they wish to do so.
- Document in the polygraph report any disruptive or non-cooperative behavior that was observed to persist after repeated admonition or instruction.
- Do not summarily terminate an examination due to persistent non-cooperation. Premature termination of an examination may be necessary in extreme cases, but may result in a lack of recorded data to support an analytic conclusion or professional judgment about likely causes of the observed problems. Examples of effective in-test admonition and instruction.
- It is important that you do not move during the test.
- It is important that you do not change your answers during the test.
- It is important that you do not talk during the test.
- It is important that you do not take deep breaths during the test questions.
This manner of in-test instruction is informative and helpful to those polygraph examinees that desire to cooperate successfully with the testing process. Though there are times and places where direct confrontation (i.e., pointing out a problem) is useful and effective, during the in-test phase of a polygraph exam – prior to the complete recording of all test data – may not be an ideal use of a communication strategy that involves the expression of a professional conclusion. Conclusions about the meaning of observed in-test behavior and recorded test data cannot be rendered until the test is complete.
Effective in-test instructions will be provided in the form of important information that is strategically and intentionally non-confrontational and non-accusatory. This type of instruction can also be used to reinforce an examinee’s awareness of the importance of cooperation during testing, even in the absence of problematic in-test behavior. Virtually any in-test instruction or admonition can be stated in an informative manner. In-test instructions done in an informative manner – “It’s important that you X” – may improve the abilities of truthful persons to produce favorable test outcomes. Compared to direct and accusatory confrontation, this manner of instruction is authoritative without becoming authoritarian. This type of in-test instruction serves to inform the examinee about the solution or corrective action that is needed. Equally important, the provision in test admonitions in the form of useful information is not likely to result in increased defensiveness and interpersonal reactivity.
For normal functioning examinee’s who are provided in-test instruction and admonition in a helpful, respectful and informative manner – in addition to receiving clear information and instruction during the polygraph pretest interview – the persistence of observed problematic behavior after repeated instruction can be documented in the examination notes or examination report. Of course, there may be some persons examinees who are unable to cooperate normally with polygraph testing processes due to medical, psychiatric or developmental reasons, and examiners should exercise due caution in any decision to attempt to examine these persons.
When in-test instructions are provided in a helpful and informational manner that reduces the potential for defensiveness or interpersonal reactivity, the persistence of observed problematic in-test behavior can become a useful basis of information to support professional intuition or analytic conclusions about those examinees whose intent may have been to disrupt the effectiveness of their polygraph examinations.Read More
Some People Think They Can
Pass a Polygraph Test by Cheating
In the UK we expect to see one in ten clients try to cheat and perform countermeasures to try to pass a polygraph test. In the pre-test interview I often cover the common things we see and explain just how easy they are for an experienced examiner to notice.
- Breathing Manipulation
The most obvious to spot, as there is always a pattern.
It’s quite normal for candidates trying this to still spectacularly fail a test, even when we have identified to them the irregular breathing patterns
- Blood Pressure Manipulation
We have candidates that tense up, to trying manipulate their blood pressure. When asked about it they may insist they were relaxed, but these attempts are painfully obvious. After stopping the test and explaining what purposeful non co-operation would mean, they will stop, or we will dis-continue the testing.
The most the most extreme countermeasure, generally, is taking drugs. Being too relaxed, to the point that the charts come out flat, is very obvious. We always ask a lot of questions and have the subject purposely lie. When there is no baseline reaction to compare with, something is obviously wrong. We’ve seen subjects have zero reaction no matter the question, which does not allow us to conduct a test. This is certainly not passing.
Purposeful Non Co-Operation…or Not?
It is easy for the cynic in us, due to the nature of our business, to expects everyone causing a false reaction is trying to cheat. However, it’s also is true that innocent people may do something we think are countermeasures.
One example was observed recently when testing someone with a resting heart rate of 140 beats per minute. It turned out they had consumed four cups of coffee pre-test, which was normal for him at that time of the day. Without knowing this it would certainly be considered purposeful. Of course they were so nervous and shaky we could not conduct the test in that situation and they had to reschedule. This is one reason we always interview the subjects and explain these things. Pre-testing is a majority of the examination and the tricks people try just do not work. Sometimes people just do the wrong thing without intent…but the test will still be stopped.
We are often asked if there things someone can do to pass a polygraph test and we answer potentially yes, but they are all very obvious and easy to spot by a properly trained and experienced examiner.
The majority of what the TV or the internet teaches you is very wrong or out of date for the polygraph industry. The education, experiences and the advances in the equipment used today is not the polygraph of the old black and white detective movie.
There is only one way to pass a Lie Detector Test…just one…TELL THE TRUTH!Read More