Terms Relating to Lie Detectors Explained – Letter G
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)A superseded term for the electrodermal response measuredexosomatically by the change in the electrical resistance of skin. GSR issometimes erroneously called Galvanic Skin Resistance or Galvanic SkinReflex. The modern term is electrodermal response (EDR).GalvanographPolygraph component responsible for producing the graphic recording ofskin resistance.GanglionA cluster of nerve cell bodies. (pl. ganglia).General State CountermeasuresAttempts to defeat the polygraph examination by influencing tonicphysiological activity, or altering phasic lability. Typical approaches includethe use of drugs, meditation, biofeedback, and fatigue. The goal of statecountermeasures is to diminish the body’s responses to all polygraphquestions. State countermeasures may affect testing techniques that rely onthe presence or absence of responses to diagnose deception, such as theConcealed Information Test or Peak of Tension tests. Because comparisonquestion tests use differential responsivity to different types of questions, statecountermeasures are more likely to result in inconclusive findings than errors.See: Honts & Amato (2002).GeneralizabilityExtent to which a set of research results can translate to other researchparadigms or to the real world.General Nervous Tension (GNT)Expression used in the practice of PDD to characterize recordedphysiological patterns that suggest the examinee’s basal level of arousal ishigh. This arousal is not indicative of deception in itself. GNT is sometimesindicated by very fast heart rates, unusually labile electrodermal activity, anduneven respiration cycles. PDD examiners try to bring examinee’s arousalstate to a median level to optimize the interpretability of the test charts.General Question TechniqueAlternate expression for the Keeler Relevant/Irrelevant Technique.Global AnalysisEvaluation of the polygraph recordings as a whole, as opposed to makingsystematic comparisons among questions. Global evaluation can alsorepresent the use of extrapolygraphic information such as subject behavior andcase facts when rendering a polygraph decision, an approach championed byReid and Arther. When information beyond the physiological tracings areconsidered to produce the final outcome, it is also called the clinical approach.Green ZoneTerm used by Cleve Backster to describe a 20-to-35 seconds block ofpolygraph chart initiated by an exclusionary comparison question which has aunique psychological focusing appeal to innocent (truthful) examinees. See:Backster (1963c).GroteckComputer polygraph manufactured in Russia.Ground TruthReality. In the PDD context it is the veridical state of truthfulness ordeception against which polygraph outcomes are compared in validity studies.Ground truth is an elusive feature in field studies because it is difficult to independently verify guilt or innocence in many cases. In laboratory studies, itis delineated into programmed guilty and programmed innocent groups.GSGInvented expression by a polygraph manufacturer to represent ameasure of skin conductance. An adaptation of GSR, substituting the letter“R” with “G,” the engineering shorthand for conductance. However, GSRstands for Galvanic Skin Response, not Resistance. The phenomenon calledGSG is more correctly denoted as skin conductance (SC).Guilt Complex ReactorHypothetical personality trait that causes innocent examinees tophysiologically respond to any question that they consider accusatory. Guiltcomplex questions have been used in many of the contemporary formats at onetime or another in an attempt to identify those examinees who would produce afalse positive outcome because of this tendency. No empirical support exists forthe existence of guilt complex examinees nor for the benefit of using a testquestion aimed at identifying them.Guilt Complex TestA PDD test format in which an examinee is tested on a fabricated crime.The guilt complex text has several hypothetical purposes, primarily in avoidingfalse positive outcomes. The guilt complex test was taught in the earliest yearsof the Reid and Keeler schools. See: Abrams (1977).Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT)A test published by Dr. David Lykken, and is based on a concealedinformation paradigm. While similar tests are described in the literature asearly as 1904 (Wertheimer & Klein), and Hugo Munsterberg outlines acomparable approach in his 1908 book On the Witness Stand, Lykkenformalized the procedures, and advocated its use in place of the CQT. Recentwriters have renamed this method the Concealed Information Test (CIT), arguingit is a more correct name because knowledge can’t be guilty of anything. See:Lykken (1959); Verschuere, Ben-Shakhar & Meijer (2011).
Contact Us Now