Terms Relating to Lie Detectors Explained – Letter I
IdentifiProduct name for a polygraph algorithm developed by Keith Hedges.Inbau, FredInbau is most known in the polygraph community for his collaborationwith polygraph pioneer John Reid. Though a lawyer, he joined the newestablished Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory in Chicago in 1933 to pursuehis interest in forensic science, and stayed with the lab as director when it wasassumed by the Chicago Police Department. He left to be a trial lawyer in1941, and joined the faculty of Northwestern University School of Law in 1945.Inbau was a prolific writer, and his book Criminal Interrogation and Confessionsis considered a classic.Intoxicated Drivers on Probation (IDOP)A program which used the polygraph to verify compliance with theconditions of probation for convicted drunk drivers. As with post-convictionsex offender testing (PCSOT) and domestic violence offender testing (DVOT), itis designed to contribute to community safety by detecting and discouragingbehaviors that pose a threat to the public by individuals with a demonstratedpropensity to engage in certain criminal acts.Imagery The use of visualization to experience memories or fantasies. Imageryhas been shown to produce profound physiologic responses, and because itcan be performed covertly by an examinee, it is a concern to PDD examiners asa possible countermeasure. Imagery is one form of dissociation.Impedance Cardiogram (ICG)Specialized cardiogram by which the timing and stroke volume of theheart can be derived. Though not currently used in PDD, it has been shown toprovide a gauge of sympathetic arousal when used in tandem with the ECG.See Harrell & Clark (1985).IncisuraA notch or indentation on any form. See dicrotic notch.Inclusive (inclusionary, non-exclusionary) comparison questionComparison question that potentially encompasses the activity ofinterest in the relevant questions. While contemporary practice tends to favorexclusionary comparison questions, no research has not found them toincrease decision accuracy over inclusive comparison questions, and moststudies support the inclusive comparison question. See: Amsel (1999);Podlesny & Raskin (1978); Horvath (1988); Horvath & Palmatier (2008).IncompletePDD outcome used in some sectors that indicates that testing wasterminated before sufficient physiological information was collected. This maybe due to the sudden onset of health problems, extreme emotional distress, orthe examinee’s unwillingness or inability to remain for further testing. It mayalso signify that the examinee provided information after initial testing thatnecessitated subsequent testing, but it was not completed due to examineefatigue, time limits, or equipment problems. A PDD decision of incompleteimplies that testing may continue at a future date.InconclusivePDD outcome where testing was completed, but neither deception nortruthfulness can be diagnosed because the physiological data are inconsistent,inadequate, artifacted, or contaminated. There is disagreement whether aninconclusive outcome should be considered an error when computing validityof PDD. Some argue that examinees are either truthful or deceptive, but neverinconclusive; therefore, such an outcome is necessarily in error. Conversely, inthe forensic sciences it has been asserted that the inconclusive outcome isused to assess utility, but not validity, because samples in forensic disciplinesare often inadequate, or contaminated. For example, fingerprint data is morefrequently inadequate than adequate, though fingerprint analysis is consideredhighly accurate in spite of the relatively modest percentage of cases that it canrender a positive identification. Because of this controversy, PDD validitystudies report accuracies both with and without inconclusive results andshould report inconclusive rates for each category of test subject. In practice,inconclusive outcomes are the default results when the criteria for deception or not-deception decisions are not satisfied and are a matter of the decisionthresholds employed. Alternate term is indefinite, or no opinion.indefiniteSee inconclusive.Independent VariableThe variable manipulated by the experimenter to determine the effectson the dependent variable. As an example, if a researcher were interested insex differences in PDD validity, the independent variable would be the genderof examinee and the dependent variable would be the accuracy of the PDDtechnique for each sex.InexComputer polygraph manufactured in Russia.Information GainStatistical approach to determine the usefulness of a technique over thenon-use of the technique. In forensic applications, the polygraph has beenshown to provide a significant information gain over unassisted lay judgmentsacross a wide range of base rates. In screening, only decisions of deception ledto a significant improvement in information gain. See Honts & Schweinle(2009).InnervationProvide nerve supply to.inside-issue comparison questionTest question used only the Quadri-Track Comparison Technique.Advocates of the technique state that it is designed to elicit a response from thetruthful examinee concerned about a false positive error. Empirical support ismixed between advocate and independent research. See: Matte (1996);Mangan, Armitage & Adams (2008); Nelson & Cushman (2011); Shurany, Stein& Brand (2009).Inside-Issue Relevant QuestionTest question used only the Quadri-Track Comparison Technique.Advocates of the technique state that it is designed to elicit a response from thedeceptive examinee hoping for a false negative error. Empirical support ismixed between advocate and independent research. See: Matte (1996);Mangan, Armitage & Adams (2008) Nelson & Cushman (2011); Shurany, Stein& Brand (2009).Inside TrackOne of four tracks in the Quadri-Track Zone Comparison Techniquewhich include the primary, secondary, and outside tracks. The inside trackemploys two questions. One of these questions addresses an examinee’s fear ofa false positive error, and is used as a comparison question. The otherconcerns the examinee’s hope of a false negative error, which is treated and interpreted as a relevant question. Empirical support is mixed betweenadvocate and independent research. See: Matte (1996); Mangan, Armitage &Adams (2008); Nelson & Cushman (2011): Shurany, Stein & Brand (2009).Inspiration (inhalation) / expiration (exhalation) ratio (I/E ratio)The duration of inhalation compared with that of exhalation. Normallythe ratio is about 1:2 in a resting human and changes during stress. It wasfirst reported by Benussi in 1914. Changes in the I/E ratio are considered bysome to be a diagnostic criterion in PDD though the phenomenon may becoincidental with rate change. See: Kircher, Kristjansson, Gardner, & Webb(2005).Instant Offense ExaminationA form of Post-Conviction Sex Offender Testing, conducted when a subjectis in denial of the offense or of some significant element of the offense for whichhe or she was convicted, and is often used to break down the denial barrier.This is also an examination that can be given when a new allegation has beenmade while the subject is on probation or parole. The polygraph is used todetermine whether the allegations are true. Also called a specific issueexamination. See: Cooley-Towel, Pasini-Hill, & Patrick (2000); Dutton, (2000);English, Pullen, & Jones (1996); Heil, Ahlmeyer, McCullar, & McKee (2000).Integrated Zone Comparison TechniqueThe Integrated Zone Comparison Technique (IZCT) was developed in1987 by Nathan J. Gordon, William Waid, and Philip Cochetti at the Academyfor Scientific Investigative Training. Much of the design of the IZCT was basedon formatting principles from the Backster Zone Comparison Techniquealthough there are significant differences. Developers of the IZCT allow theexaminer the flexibility to use the same test structure for both single-issue andmultiple-issue cases. The IZCT is unique in that it uses a rank orderingsystem of analysis, called the Horizontal Scoring System. Also, unlike othertechniques, the first chart is conducted as a silent answer test, and in the thirdchart there is a reversal of the positions of comparison-relevant questions torelevant-comparisons. See: Gordon, Fleisher, Morsie, Habib, & Salah (2000);Nelson & Handler (2011).IntegumentCovering of the body (skin). Human skin consists of three primarylayers: epidermis, dermis, and subdermis. It is comprised of a complex set oforgans that provide protective and sense functions. Skin protects the body fromenvironmental threats such as temperature, chemical, mechanical andinfectious agents by acting as a selective barrier. Skin can aid in the removal ofsubstances like water and solutes from the bloodstream through the sweatglands. From a sensory standpoint, skin houses various receptors to provideafferent information related to touch, pain and temperature See: Handler,Nelson, Krapohl & Honts (2010).Intent QuestionQuestion used in polygraph testing to determine whether the examineehad engaged in an act with criminal intent, rather than merely committed theact. It is considered the least reliable of all types of relevant questions in PDDtesting and is avoided whenever possible. Some behavioral acts include intentby their definition, e.g. ‘sexual contact’.interbeat interval (IBI)Period between cardiac pulse waves, usually measured from systole tosystole. The IBI has been shown to shorten just after the onset of stress inmost people if a defense response has been found to occur. Contrarily, IBI hasbeen found to increase initially during an orienting response. IBI and heartrate are reciprocals of one another.Inter-Chart StimulationExaminer-examinee interaction that takes place in the few minutesbetween individual tests. The interaction might include general reminders forthe examinee to answer all questions truthfully (in the case of PLC techniques),or further emphasizing the comparison questions. Some research suggeststhat inter-chart stimulation may improve the validity of polygraphy, though itremains a very controversial procedure. See: Abrams (1999); Honts (1999;2000); Matte (2000).International 10-20 systemStandard guide to electrode placement on the scalp for recording EEGactivity. The system uses letters and numbers to indicate coordinates on thescalp. The P300 brain wave, used in concealed information paradigms, isrecorded maximally at site Pz.Introductory TestAlternate term for a stimulation test. See stimulation test.Investigative ExaminationA polygraph examination which is intended to supplement and/or assistan investigation and for which the examiner has not been informed and doesnot reasonably believe that the results of the examination will be tendered foradmission as evidence in a court proceeding. Types of investigativeexaminations can include applicant testing, counterintelligence screening,community safety examinations (e.g., post conviction sex offender testing,domestic violence testing, intoxicated drivers on probation, etc.), as well asroutine specific issue and single issue or multiple-facet diagnostic testing.Irrelevant QuestionA question designed to be emotionally neutral to examinees. Irrelevantquestions are most often placed in the first position of a question list becausean orienting response usually follows the presentation of the first question andis of no diagnostic value. In CQT formats it is also used after a relevant orcomparison question that has elicited a strong response so as to permitphysiologic arousal levels to return to baseline before presenting another question. Irrelevant questions are used in nearly every type of PDD test. Also
called norms or neutrals.
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