Terms Relating to Lie Detectors Explained – Letter O
Objective Scoring System (OSS)A form of 7-position scoring where the individually assigned values arederived from ratios that come from measurements of the “Kircher features.”Because the scores come from measurements, the OSS eliminates subjectivityin chart interpretation. However, it is very time-intensive when performedmanually, and impractical for routine use. The OSS has been automated bysome computer polygraph manufacturers. The OSS version 3 (Nelson, Krapohl& Handler, 2008) can accommodate almost all probable-lie CQTs. See Dutton(2000); Krapohl & McManus (1999).Oculomotor Deception TestA credibility assessment technology that uses eye movements andpupillary responses from examinees as they read questions. See: Webb,Hacker, Osher, Cook, Woltz, Kristjansson & Kircher (2009).Offset TracingExpression often used to indicate the consequence of using differentlength recording pens with analog polygraphs. The practice in the professionwas to use a longer (0.5- to 0.8-inch) pen for the electrodermal channel topermit wide excursions of the pen without it becoming entangled with therespiration and cardiosphygmograph recording pens. The result was that theelectrodermal channel was “offset” from the other tracings, usually theequivalent of 5 to 8 seconds. None of the computer polygraphs have this offset.Operant ConditioningType of conditioning in which reward or punishment is given to thesubject, depending on the preceding behavior. Rewards increase the likelihoodof the recurrence of the behavior, and punishment discourages the behavior.Biofeedback uses operant conditioning to help patients reduce blood pressure,electrodermal activity, and other physiological processes. Since operantconditioning can be used to teach individuals to regulate their own autonomicresponses, it is a method of teaching PDD countermeasures. The littleresearch that has evaluated the influence of biofeedback training on PDDefficacy has not found an effect. See: Honts (1987).Orienting Response (OR)Heightened sensitivity to specific sensory input that is characterized byincreased information processing, narrowed attentional concentration, andphysiologic excitation. PDD test question series never begin with a relevantquestion because the physiological pattern of an OR can be easily confusedwith a response indicative of deception.Othello errorExpression coined by Paul Ekman to denote the misattribution of thefear or emotional distress of an innocent person as an indication of guilt. See:Ekman (1985).OutlierA value beyond the normal range of values. For example, the last valuein the following series could be considered an outlier: 5,9,2,6,6,8,3,1,6,9,5,32.Outliers may be excluded from data collection because they have inordinateinfluence on central tendency. What constitutes an outlier, or extreme score,is established a priori. A real life experimental example of an outlier might bewhere reaction times are being measured, and the subject falls asleep duringone trial. While most scores might be in the 0.5- to 0.9-second range, thesubject’s latency of response to the stimulus where he begins sleeping might goseveral seconds, thus producing an outlier. The term outlier has beenintroduced into the science of PDD with the development of computerizedscoring algorithms along with their precise measurements of responses.outside issue questionSee symptomatic question.Outside TrackOne of four tracks in the Quadri-Track Zone Comparison Technique,which include the primary, secondary, and inside tracks. The outside trackconsists of two symptomatic questions. See: Matte (1996).Overall Truth QuestionPDD test question that addresses the examinee’s overall truthfulness orintention to be truthful during testing. Used in some multiple-issue screeningtests.
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